The Whole View

Join Stacy of Real Everything and Dr. Sarah of The Paleo Mom as they bust myths and answer your questions about a nontoxic lifestyle, nutrient-dense diet, Autoimmune Protocol, and parenting.

Welcome back listeners to The Whole View, episode 41.! (0:27)

Sarah corrected Stacy, this is episode 401.

One of the things that Sarah is finding to be challenging during the coronavirus quarantine is the lack of things that mark the passage of time.

Every day seems the same, which is disorienting.

This time has been eye-opening to Stacy from a quality of life standpoint.

If you missed the announcement on episode 400, this show is now The Whole View.

However, it is the same podcast, just with a new name.

This week Stacy and Sarah are going to jump right in and talk covid-19.

Stacy is in week six of quarantine.

If you are enjoying this show, please leave a review.

And if you left a review when the show was The Paleo View, please leave a new review.

This will help people find the updated show.

Sarah has received some amazing compliments on the coronavirus podcast episodes that have aired so far.

 

Listener Comments

“Thanks for all of the amazing actionable content during this health crisis! I’ve been tuning in to the podcast every week.” - Mariel (4:43)

I’m a long time listener, one of those who’s gone back and “caught up,” I know Stacy, but they were so helpful! I mainly attribute the fact that I’ve maintained control of my RA for 3 years without my double dose of DMARDs to you two! Saved my life! Thank you both for all that you do. It would be an honor just to be given a shout out on the new show: The Whole View, congrats! I can’t wait to hear the first episode!” - Amy

“Thank you for all the energy and passion you put into every episode! I learn something new every time and I've even gotten my husband to listen along with me.” - Renee

 

Listener Questions

Sarah wanted to give a special shoutout Charissa who does all the pre-show prep and is Sarah's, Chief Operations Officer. (6:47)

Charissa goes through all the listener questions and the podcast inbox and organizes them into topic groups.

She then helps Stacy and Sarah put together their recording calendar, and puts a ton of time in the pre-production projects.

Sarah wanted to say a huge thank you for all that Charissa does.

She was a huge help in collecting and organizing the questions for this week's show.

The first question is, what is our way out?

The scale of shutdowns globally is unprecedented.

This is unique in human history.

These shelter-in-place orders have had a huge effect on the global economy, with unemployment numbers extremely high.

All of this has been done to flatten the curve, which Sarah explained in greater detail.

One of the big challenges with this virus is that it has a high hospitalization rate.

This virus is highly infectious and is a strain on the healthcare system.

Because this is such a challenging virus and we don't have a treatment yet, our only option has been to quarantine.

So the question is, how do we get back out? And life as normal?

The way to get beyond this is that we need one of three things to happen.

The first thing, which will be the most effective, is herd immunity.

Sarah broke down the way that herd immunity works.

In the absence of herd immunity, the other big thing that would get us back to life as normal would be an effective anti-viral treatment.

There is also the option of using medications that would prevent the virus from infecting a person.

However, this is much less likely since there aren't many drugs that are effective that do this.

In the absence of those two options, the other option is to do these shutdowns and quarantines long enough to ramp up testing capabilities.

There were countries that ramped up testing at the beginning who were able to successfully slow the spread of the virus.

 

More on the Three Options

There are challenges with each one of these three cases, which Sarah will breakdown further. (18:42)

None of these scenarios are fast.

The fastest way out is probably the discovery of an effective antiviral.

There are a number of candidate drugs that are being tested.

Many have been shown to kill the coronavirus in test tubes.

However, this doesn't mean that the drug will successfully reach the part in our body that would make it effective.

Understanding safe dosages is critical.

We actually don’t have many truly effective antivirals.

For example, Tamaflu can decrease the duration of influenza illness by 30% to 40%, and decrease flu severity by about 40%.

However, it only works if taken in the first 36 to 48 hours of illness.

As commonly taken, it shortens the duration of flu by about a day.

It has not been proven to have a positive impact on hospitalizations or mortality of seasonal, avian, or pandemic influenza.

There are some good examples of effective antiviral treatments though.

The best example we have is the antiviral cocktail that is given to HIV positive patients.

Sarah explained the way in which the HIV cocktail works in the body.

We do have these examples of antivirals that can be very effective.

 

The Need for Data

However, what we need right now for covid-19 is randomized controlled, double-blind clinical trials of the antivirals that we already have.

We need to look for drug combinations, and we need to establish risk profiles.

Safety is a huge concern with antivirals in general.

Many have high adverse reaction rates, which is why we don’t have an antiviral for the common cold.

Data is needed to make decisions.

The hydroxychloroquine initial trial was unblinded, uncontrolled in 20 patients, and excluded severe illness from the study.

All these types of trials are supposed to do is indicate whether something is worthy of further study.

Sarah shared more on this study out of Brazil.

Preliminary findings suggest that the higher CQ dosage (10-day regimen) should not be recommended for COVID-19 treatment because of its potential safety hazards.

Such results forced us to prematurely halt patient recruitment to this arm.

Given the enormous global push for the use of CQ for COVID-19, results such as the ones found in this trial can provide robust evidence for updated COVID-19 patient management recommendations.

There is promise with antivirals as a treatment for covid-19.

However, it is very important to take preliminary studies with a very large grain of salt.

We need bigger studies to prove efficacy and safety, which takes time.

Matt made a very rare appearance on the show to add this breaking update to Sarah's recommendations. (31:55)

 

Vaccine Development

More tricky than antivirals is vaccine development.

One of the things that is really important to understand is that vaccine development, especially for a new virus, takes years.

The fastest vaccine that has ever been developed was for mumps, which took four years.

The Ebola virus vaccine was a close second and took five years to develop.

We are trying to develop a vaccine for the coronavirus in a year, which is unrealistically optimistic, given the challenges with developing vaccines against other members of the coronavirus family.

Covid-19 is the seventh identified coronavirus that infects humans.

The early vaccine development for 2002 SARS cause vaccine-enhanced immunity in rodents.

Not all antibody responses are protective.

By the time they had a candidate, researchers were unable to test their SARS vaccine candidates for effectiveness in humans because they would have had to inoculate a population that was exposed to SARS, and the disease was effectively wiped out using public-health measures before that could happen.

What is happening now with covid-19, is that vaccine research is picking up where SARS vaccine research left off.

We need to understand the antibody response to covid-19.

There have been some studies that show that the bodies producing several different types of antibodies when it is infected with covid-19.

However, they are not all neutralizing antibodies.

The chances of a vaccine causing vaccine enhanced infection are still there with covid-19.

Sarah shared information from this study.

 

The Complexity of Vaccine Development

It will be complex to develop an effective vaccine against the novel coronavirus.

There are many different vaccines that are in phase-one clinical trials.

We will need to do the human trials at the same time as the animal trials in order to expedite the timeline.

It will also take a huge investment in mass-producing vaccines.

Once a vaccine is proven to be effective, it takes six months to a year to mass-produce that vaccine to the level that we will need to achieve herd immunity.

We hope that the SARS vaccine research was progressed far enough that picking up from that for this related virus will help expedite the vaccine development.

Stacy shared her appreciation for these facts.

These details help to give perspective.

 

Natural Immunity

There is this whole other side of it, which is developing natural immunity by people getting infected. (41:25)

However, there are still some questions as to how immune people are after getting the disease and how long that immunity lasts.

Sarah shared information on this study out of China on antibodies in coronavirus cases.

There is still this piece of science that needs to be figured out and researched.

We need to understand what kind of antibodies need to be produced by our bodies to be immune, and how much.

Once we know that, we need to know how long those are going to last.

One of our ways through this is by ramping up testing, which needs to be done on both active infections and immunity.

There have been a ton of antibody tests that have been rolled out.

This is interesting to Sarah because tests have been introduced without basic science to interpret the data.

Tests don’t have high enough specificity or sensitivity.

Poor sensitivity means false negatives, poor specificity means false positives.

 

Testing

We need the antibody tests to be better, and we need the diagnostic tests to be a rapid test. (47:33) 

Right now, testing is taking five to twelve days to get results back.

We need a diagnostic test that acts very much like the rapid strep test.

Once we have the testing capabilities and we have a good enough handle with the shutdown, then we could potentially start returning to a more normal life without waiting for a vaccine or antiviral.

This requires a huge amount of tests.

Sarah explained that way widespread frequent testing would help.

However, contact tracing presents privacy issues with smartphone tracking.

This is a resource-intensive process.

Stacy added that she loves the idea of using tech for these purposes!

Sarah shared more on the flaws in this approach.

We need to be able to take the human resources out of contact tracing, and crazily ramp up testing.

We need to be testing as many people per day as we have tested total in America so far.

Then we need to do these targeted quarantines based on who has been exposed.

We also need to better protect our healthcare workers.

While the mortality rate from covid-19 increases dramatically with age, the hospitalization rate is still really high in young people.

The rate of severe illness requiring hospitalization is not that different between young, healthy people and either people with preexisting conditions or who are older.

 

Continuing Our Work Together

We have to figure out how to carefully return to life as normal bit by bit so that we don't completely overwhelm hospitals. 

This is the part that is painful and heartbreaking for Stacy to deal with.

Thinking about those healthcare professionals and those other people on the frontlines and the sacrifices that they are making.

We are coming together as a community to help those people who are still fighting that fight and who are risking their lives.

Stacy focuses on these realities, which makes all the other frustrations worth it.

She has so much to be grateful for, and these are the pieces she focuses on.

We can all find something to give us that compassion for those who are fighting on the frontlines. 

Sarah shared on the struggle of sympathizing with those on the front lines who are facing a very different set of challenges while trying to also process and address your own personal challenges.

It is very important to give people permission to know that their struggles are valid. 

Do not dismiss the challenges that each one of us are having.

Also, work to maintain awareness about the things that deserve gratitude.

From a mental health perspective, it is really important to be able to appreciate that we have these challenges.

Then be able to apply a solution-oriented mindset to them.

If you are feeling frustrated and overwhelmed, something that has given Stacy hope and something to look to is donating time, resources, and money when they can.

 

Reinfection

The other group of questions that have come up has to do with reinfection. (1:02:44)

There have been some reports out of South Korea and China where they have people who tested as negative and then were rehospitalized a couple of days later after testing positive.

It is probably a testing failure.

We know that in the course of covid-19, people who are going to have a mild course of the disease tends to resolve in 10 to 14 days.

The moderate to a severe course of the disease is a four to six weeks recovery timeline.

So around that 10-day mark, people start to feel like they are getting better.

If they received a false negative, and then developed into a severe case, this is what would have led to hospitalization.

The reinfection cases are likely a result of false negatives with testing.

Thus far, the research shows that people cannot actually be reinfected with the virus, at least on the time scales that we have been dealing with.

Sarah shared information from this reinfection study out of Bejing.

There was another study on reinfection out of China that Sarah shared on, which you can find here.

Right now the data points to once you've had it and gone through the other side, you should be good. 

We don't know if you will be good for the rest of your life, or a few years, but definitely for the next little while.

 

Face Masks

Do non-medical grade face masks really make a difference? (1:08:49)

The answer is yes.

Face masks reduce our aerosol exposure by a combination of the filtering action of the fabric and the seal between the mask and the face.

In order to have an effective homemade mask, you want both a material that will do a good job of filtration and you want it to fit around your face well.

You still want to social distance and be very careful about what you are touching. 

Still, work to not touch your face while you are out of the house until you have had the opportunity to thoroughly wash your hands. 

Also, when you take the face mask off, you want to think of it as if it is contaminated. 

You want to take it off carefully and put it directly into the washing machine, and then wash your hands again.

Think of the mask as a contaminated surface. 

There was a study done on homemade masks made of different fabrics and how effective they are based on the various design factors. 

This is not an N95 mask that is going to protect you against everything. 

It is still really important for two reasons. 

One, if you have it and don't know, it is going to contain a large amount of the virus in which you are shedding.

This will reduce your risk of infecting others around you.

Second, this is going to help you if you are exposed to an infectious person.

The virus exposure, how much you are exposed to when you are infected, is a major contributor to the severity of the illness. 

One of the challenges that healthcare workers face is that they are being exposed to so many different particles when they do get exposed, due to their proximity with so many different covid-19 patients. 

This is why we need the appropriate levels of PPE for our healthcare workers, and we need them to be able to change them between patients. 

 

Closing Thoughts

If you are exposed to the virus when you are out of the house, but you are wearing an air mask that reduces your risk by 75% you just decreased your inoculation dose by 75%.

Statistically, this will increase the liklihood of a more mild course of the disease.

Stacy learned so much in this episode and thanked listeners for asking these questions, and Sarah for taking the time to research and answer these questions. 

If you have enjoyed the show be sure to share it with people in your life who you think would also enjoy the show. 

And leave a review and rating on whatever platform you enjoy listening in. 

Stacy and Sarah thank you so much for following along on the Whole View. 

It is taking Stacy and Sarah a little bit of time to get use to this change.

We have received so much great feedback on this change, and Stacy feels like we are celebrating this milestone as a family. 

Thank you for being a part of this community!

We will be back again next week! (1:21:40)

Oh my gosh, Sarah, it happened! (0:27)

Episode 400!!

Sarah and Stacy have been talking about updating the show to reflect what they have been doing for a really long time.

Special thanks to Sarah and her team who came up with the new name, The Whole View.

It is the same show, featuring the same people, but with an update to the branding.

Sarah noted that they started this conversation a few months ago.

They looked at the timeline and thought it would be great to use the 400th episode milestone to refresh the name and branding to reflect what they are already doing.

The show has evolved and gone through the same types of changes that both Stacy and Sarah have also gone through.

It has grown to reflect a broader perspective than how they started.

The timing to update how they present the show couldn't have been better.

One thing that has stood true for the test of time is that Stacy and Sarah's show is all about whole, nutrient-dense foods.

There is a much broader perspective about what goes into the lifestyle factors.

The word paleo holds a lot of associations with it.

There is a lot more to what Stacy and Sarah represent, which has a lot to do with the research that is shared in every episode, every week.

Stacy and Sarah wanted to bring that to listeners in a holistic format.

 

The Whole Approach

The word whole carries a lot of meaning to Stacy and Sarah.

Sarah explained why this word so perfectly describes where they are now.

They have always been dedicated to providing listeners with only science-backed information.

Presenting a balanced and nuanced approach has always been a high priority.

Bioinidivudality is an important component to healthy living, as there is more than one way to achieve an optimally healthy nutrient-dense diet.

Stacy and Sarah are still focused on being real and sharing their real lives, ideas, solutions, tips, and strategies.

If you have been listening to this show for a long time, it will not be any different for you.

You will see a new photo on iTunes.

If you are new to the show, Stacy hopes that you love the approach that they take to always be down to earth, but also not make assumptions about how you absorb science.

Stacy and Sarah empower listeners with the knowledge so that they can make the choice.

Not all of this is about food either.

Stacy and Sarah have tackled so many things on this show.

There is such a variety of things that go into living a healthy life and feeling your best.

Stacy's goal with every episode is to set listeners up with the tools so that they can feel their best.

The hosts aim to inspire listeners so that they can live their best life.

The Whole View is about empowerment.

Sarah doesn't just cherry-pick the science to support whatever narrative she wants to communicate.

She looks at the science to understand the contradictions, within the scientific evidence, and how it typically implies some kind of context.

Stacy and Sarah will never tell you that they are perfect or that it is easy to implement a healthy lifestyle.

They are going to be upfront and honest about their own struggles, setbacks, and how they apply this information to parenting.

 

The Evolution

Stacy and Sarah have been recording this podcast for seven and a half years. (10:25)

When they first began their kids were very young and they were just introducing them to a nutrient-dense, anti-inflammatory approach.

Now Stacy has smelly boy, teenagers.

This has been a journey, and they hope to continue sharing that journey with listeners.

 

Behind the Scenes

Sarah and Stacy want to be timely in the information they are providing.

They want to be responsive to what is going on in the world.

One of the ways that they achieve this is by having a quick turnaround on their shows.

Stacy and Sarah record on Tuesday mornings (usually), and that show goes live on Friday.

This allows them to ensure that the content is still timely.

In the health podcast space, you much more commonly see people batch produce their podcasts.

This allows Stacy and Sarah to address what is happening in the news and what is trending on social media.

They are also able to address listener questions very quickly.

Don't forget, the best way to reach Stacy and Sarah are through their individual contact forms on their sites here and here.

You can also reach out to them on social media, but email works great since this prevents the message from getting lost in the shuffle of social media.

When a question comes in via email, it also allows Stacy and Sarah to position the question so that it relates to many listeners.

 

Show Topics

Stacy and Sarah aim to present information that is relatable, sustainable, and something that you walk away with feeling prepared to implement ideas.

When it comes to topics, Stacy and Sarah look to a bunch of different inspiration sources.

They then try to tackle a narrow enough topic that they can take a deep dive into it.

From there, it is all about being able to take a step back to talk about emotions, implementation, and effects.

At any one time, Stacy and Sarah have four to ten topics in the hopper with an overall idea about what is coming in the next month.

This allows them to build in series so that topics can flow from one episode to the next.

They also will utilize an FAQ format to host follow up episodes.

Some times they have to create space for a show based on the number of questions that come in.

 

Show Prep

Between Stacy and Sarah, they spend somewhere into the teens in the number of hours that go into researching, brainstorming, and note prep.

Show notes tend to be between seven to eight pages long.

Stacy feels more educated and prepared thanks to these show notes.

The information in those outlines also allows them to translate it further across their platforms.

The hope is that the show notes serve as a reference point for both listeners and their family and friends so that they can refer others to that information.

The goal is for the information to stand the test of time.

Sarah puts links to the scientific references in the show notes.

This allows her to evolve the content as the science evolves.

Regardless of how listeners prefer to learn, Stacy and Sarah strive to present the information in as many ways as possible to help listeners retain all that they are learning about.

A few years ago, there was a moment that led Stacy and Sarah to stop incorporating guests into the show format.

Stacy and Sarah knew that they needed to hold true to their standards.

Early on the show was heavy on guest interviews and book and product reviews.

However, they realized that they could provide more value to listeners than marketing plugs.

In 2019, Stacy and Sarah began incorporating brands, when appropriate.

They only invite brands they personally use, to sponsor shows, with the goal of getting listeners special deals. 

It is very rare that they suggest products.

They instead recommend products as a tool that can help with a lifestyle component.

Sarah shared more on the ways in which the market evolved when people clung on to fad dieting approaches.

Stacy shared more about how and why they reach out to brands.

 

The Process

What Stacy thinks is the best part of the show is that they begin recording right from the start. (29:20)

The recordings include all of what Stacy and Sarah talk about before and after the show.

This content always makes for great bloopers.

Stacy and Sarah are personal friends in real life, and the comedy dynamic is a lot of fun.

At that point, they hand the recording over to Stacy's husband, Matt.

Matt produces the show, edits the content, adds in music, and takes out the background cat noises.

He has been doing this since the very beginning and has been their silent partner through it all.

Stacy thanked Matt for all he does, and Sarah echoed that gratitude.

Sarah noted that they could not do this show without Matt.

He puts so much work into each episode.

Monica is the other team member, and she has been doing show notes for years.

She has come in and out a couple of times but has been the longest-running podcast member other than Stacy, Sarah, and Matt.

Monica takes the show notes and creates an outline for listeners to access on Stacy and Sarah's blogs.

She also listens to make sure that no further edits are needed. 

Once Monica is done with the notes, Sarah's team gets ahold of the notes and Nicole (Sarah's graphic designer) creates the images for the social media shares.

And then it goes out to the world.

Matt finishes his part of the process on Tuesday night, the audio goes to Monica on Wednesday, and Sarah's team gets the information on Friday.

Sarah's team has hours to turn the visuals around, and Stacy gives huge props to Sarah's group for their work. 

 

Always There For You

Stacy and Sarah are super proud to have never missed a recording for this weekly show. 

If one of them are traveling, they come up with a timeline and a plan so that they can both be on every episode.

As much as Stacy and Sarah are committed to this process, the teams are equally as committed to getting this content to listeners. 

Huge shout out to Matt, Monica, Nicole and everyone else on Sarah's team who helps with this process. 

Stacy isn't aware of any other podcasts that handle their podcast creation like this.

 

Thank You

If you appreciate the work that goes into this and love the show, please leave a review on all platforms where you listen to this show.

The more reviews that come into the hosting platforms, the more accessible this show becomes to other listeners who may have not found the show otherwise. 

Stacy cannot thank you enough if you have already left a review. 

Please do an update to the review if you can. 

This will really help to get the word out as the new branding is pushed out into the podcast spaces. 

Be sure to also tell Stacy and Sarah on social media what you think of the new name. 

Thank you, listeners, for tuning in and for being a part of this journey. 

Stacy always thinks of this community of listeners as her family. 

Both Stacy and Sarah are so grateful to have had so many people on this journey with them for so long. 

Stacy sent a big virtual hug to those who have been along for the ride.

The one thing that has stood true is all the listeners who have been supportive and have been with Stacy and Sarah every single week. 

Sarah seconded this. 

When Stacy and Sarah meet someone who is a podcast listener, there is always an instant connection that is completely different from others they meet. 

We are truly a community of like-minded people.

Sarah wanted to say a huge thank you for engaging with this space, for being such amazing contributors and for everything that you do to support us. 

Thank you for tuning in!

Stacy and Sarah will of course, as always, be back again next week! (43:33) 

Welcome to episode 399 of the Paleo View. (0:40)

Stacy and Sarah might have a giant announcement to share in episode 400.

You might have to tune-in.

Stacy feels like it has been a long time coming.

Right before hitting record, Stacy and Sarah were talking about life.

Life is still interesting if you are listening during a different time.

Stacy is in week-four of social distancing and her emotional rollercoaster is still continuing to happen.

Sarah noted that this is the new normal as we are all adapting and adjusting.

Stacy has lots of blue-light blocking glasses, and she does feel a difference in her eye-fatigue when she wears them.

Despite how often they have discussed the importance of amber-tinted glasses, Stacy thought that the cool versions were the same as the regular amber-tinted lenses.

Sarah noted that there are multiple kinds of blue, which she will cover in greater detail in the show.

Stacy initiated melatonin production recently and then elevated her cortisol from a conversation, and she feels like something got messed up with her sleep cycle as a result.

Sarah is going to address what happened to Stacy in her notes on this week's show.

She realizes that she has never gone deep into the science on amber-tinted glasses.

This is a great episode to take a step back and talk about circadian rhythm, the light-dark cycle, and the magnitude of the effect of light exposure timing has on sleep.

Sarah is currently focusing on dialing in the lifestyle factors that are easy to let slide when she gets busy.

Let's take a step back and talk about why these funny looking amber-tinted glasses work, which will make it clear how they can impact your sleep.

 

BLUblox

First, this week's sponsor BLUblox, Stacy and Sarah want to give a special shoutout. (12:55)

Stacy loves that they donate a pair of reading glasses to someone in a developing world for each pair of BLUblox that they sell.

Especially right now, Stacy loves supporting companies that give back.

Sarah noted that they make really high-quality blue-blocking glasses, and how you can tell the difference between low-quality brands.

You can actually still see really clearly with them on, even at night.

BLUblox is creating such high-quality optic grade lenses, and it is a super-specific tint.

Their glasses are made in Australia.

Stacy noted that they really do create a calming, sedative state.

To check them out visit this site.

And if you purchase a pair, enter the code 'PALEOVIEW' for 15% off.

 

Circadian Rhythm

In order to understand the benefits of wearing blue-block glasses in the evening, Sarah wants to take a step back to explain circadian rhythm. (16:52)

The term circadian rhythm refers to the fact that a huge array of biological processes cycle according to a 24-hour clock.

Circadian rhythm allows your body to assign functions based on the time of day (and whether or not you are asleep).

For example, prioritizing tissue repair while you are sleeping, and prioritizing the search for food, metabolism, and movement while you are awake.

Your brain has a master clock, called the circadian clock, which is controlled by specialized cells in a region of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus.

Clock genes are components of the circadian clock comparable to the cogwheels of a mechanical watch.

They interact with each other in an intricate manner generating oscillations of gene expression.

Clock genes are components of the circadian clock comparable to the cogwheels of a mechanical watch. They interact with each other in an intricate manner generating oscillations of gene expression.

The SCN receives information about illumination through the eyes.

The retina contains specialized ganglion cells that are directly photosensitive (contain the photopigment melanopsin), and project directly to the SCN (via a pathway called the retinohypothalamic tract), where they help in the entrainment of the master circadian clock.

 

The Circadian Clock

The circadian clock actively gates sleep and wakefulness to occur in synchrony with the light-dark cycles.

It shuts off melatonin production and boosts cortisol secretion and heart rate 2-3h prior to waking.

The circadian clock then controls the ebb and flow of certain hormones (cortisol and melatonin being especially important), which act as signals of the circadian clock throughout the body.

Cortisol peaks shortly after waking, and melatonin peaks during the middle of the night.

Secretion of melatonin peaks at night and ebbs during the day and its presence provides information about night-length.

Because the master circadian clock in our brain is set by light and dark, it is important to understand that indoor light is not bright enough to be the daytime signal.

And it is too bright to be the get ready for bed signal.

Indoor light is the worst of both worlds.

It is interesting to look at the luxe values of different types of light.

Brightness is a huge part of this.

If we spend all of our days indoors, it isn't bright enough to impact our circadian clock.

And it is too bright to use it in the evening to tell our body it is nighttime.

It turns out that blue wavelengths of light are the most important for syncing that circadian clock.

Which means that bright blue length waves of light during the day tell our body what time it is.

Daylight is rich in blue light.

Sunrise and sunset have very little blue light and has a lot of red light.

LED bulbs, in particular, have a very high output in blue wavelengths.

However, these wavelengths aren't high enough to mimic daylight.

 

Dim Light Melatonin Onset

We have this thing called Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO). (29:22)

It turns out that light is an inhibitor of DLMO.

A substantial number of studies have shown that the onset of melatonin secretion under dim light conditions (DLMO) is the single most accurate marker for assessing the circadian pacemaker.

Light, especially blue wavelengths, suppresses melatonin production in the evenings, called light-induced melatonin suppression.

There have been a bunch of studies that have looked at what happens when you basically mess up this natural ebb and flow.

We know that blue wavelengths of light in the evening suppresses that normal melatonin production, and that is a direct contributor to sleep disturbances.

Stacy shared how they focus on using warm-lighting in the evenings.

 

Solutions

One of the ways to biohack this dim light signal that we need in the evenings is to use red lightbulbs and use a dim setter.

Programable LEDs are another great option.

However, this also means you have to avoid screen exposure, which is a challenging thing to do.

In an ideal world, you would avoid screen exposure for two to three hours before bed.

This is why wearing amber glasses is a much more accessible solution, which allows us to use our devices.

Sarah covered training your circadian clock with your sleep/wake cycle if you work night shifts.

There is essentially a three-part solution to work with here.

We want to first get that bright light exposure during the day of at least 10,000 luxe.

The easiest way to do that is to go outside at some point during the day.

An alternative is to use a 1o,000 to 12,000 luxe light therapy lamp or box.

The big thing to address in cementing this light/dark cycle is the two-hours of no blue light before bed.

The next thing is sleeping in a really dark room.

The third piece is to enforce a consistent schedule with this.

If you lost your light/dark cycle, your circadian clock will continue to chug away at about 24-hours for a while before it starts to get messed up.

 

Additional Bio-Hacks

It is also important to put on your blue-light blocking glasses at the same time every night.

This information came from a study that was done on Seasonal Affective Disorder.

Even in bright-light conditions, the impact on sleep is considered a relatively small effect.

There is this other big challenge that there hasn't been enough research to optimize timing for light therapy.

Sarah shared on what research has been done to date on light therapy lamps and what the science shows in terms of gaps in information.

It doesn't matter when you are getting outside for daylight exposure.

However, there really isn't enough to know, if you are looking to optimize sleep, what is the best way to do it.

When it comes to optimizing sleep, blue-blocking glasses is where it is at.

Stacy reiterated that if you thought you had blue-light-blocking glasses and were doing great, know that you are not alone.

Stacy and Sarah talked about melatonin on this podcast episode.

When you sync your circadian clock, you are synching just about every hormone in the human body.

While most studies are measuring melatonin, it is impacting much more.

Stacy is not a big fan of supplementing unnecessarily.

It has been something that they have used for Wesley when needed.

However, Stacy is going to get him his own pair of amber-tinted glasses and see how that helps.

Sarah's 13-year-old resists wearing them.

Stacy uses the angle of trying new things as a science experiment to get buy-in from her boys.

 

Literature Review

One of the things that Sarah wants to emphasize is that there isn't enough data yet that a metanalysis has been done on blue-light blockers. (51:26)

This implies that we don't necessarily have a definitive answer on the magnitude of the effect.

Sarah is going to go through the studies.

However, please keep in mind that the true magnitude of the effect is probably an average of all these different types of studies.

Sarah wanted to illustrate the different scenarios in which blue-blocking glasses have been shown to benefit sleep.

The scientific evidence right now is that no one would be exempt from benefiting from them.

Orange-lenses (also called amber lenses) cut the specific blue portion of light.

Sarah explained the difference between the different kinds of lenses that are available.

The first study that was published in 2006 took 14 healthy, normal people.

They exposed these people to a bright light for an hour at 1:00 a.m.

The participants wore either orange lense glasses or gray lens glasses.

Those blue-blocking glasses let in 20% more light, and these people had a 6% increase in melatonin compared to no light exposure the day before.

The people wearing gray glasses had a 46% reduction in melatonin.

It nearly cut their melatonin in half.

From there, blue-light blocking glasses started to be tested on different populations.

 

A Look at More of the Science

The next study done in 2009, looked at 20 volunteers, again normal - healthy adults.

This study looked at whether or not wearing proper blue-blocking glasses or yellow-tint glasses had the biggest impact.

The study found that the group of people who were wearing blue-blocking glasses had huge improvements in sleep quality, relative to the people who were blocking ultra-violet light.

This study also measured mood, which is significantly impacted by our sleep quality.

The study found that the people wearing amber glasses had much higher mood scores the next day.

One of the things that researchers have looked at with amber glasses (in a 2010 study) is shift workers who altered their light/dark cycle to match their workday, even though it doesn't match what is going on outside.

Sarah broke down the details on how the study was conducted.

The study found that those shift workers at the sawmill who were doing all these controlling measures of their light had much-improved sleep.

They also had improved job performance, measuring errors.

 

Additional Elements of Testing

There was a study published in 2015 looking at the impact on adolescents.

Adolescents have a natural delay in their sleep cycles.

This study took 15 to 17-year-old young men, who were healthy, and had them wear blue-light blocking glasses in the evening.

They looked at how these glasses impacted sleep parameters.

The study showed that wearing blue-blocking glasses improved their dim light melatonin production.

It normalized their sleep patterns.

Around the same time, a study was done in delayed sleep phase disorder.

These patients wore blue-light blocking amber glasses from 9:00 p.m. until bedtime for two weeks.

The amber glasses reduced the amount of time it took to fall asleep by 132 minutes.

It reduced how long it was taking them to fall asleep by 72 minutes.

A 2019 study done in recreational athletes looked at recovery and the correlation with sleep quality.

The study looked at young, healthy, recreational athletes.

They either had no light restriction or wore amber glasses in the evening.

It showed that their sleep quality improved and the time it took them to fall asleep dropped from 19 minutes to 12 minutes.

They also had measured increased alertness the following morning.

There have been studies looking at psychological disorders, in particular manic states associated with bipolar disease.

They had these study participants wear blue-light blocking glasses from 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m.

The results showed much better sleep efficiency, much fewer nights of interrupted sleep, and required less pharmacological treatment for sleep.

 

The Study With Multiple Elements

The last study Sarah wants to talk about was done in professional athletes.

This study added a strict schedule and light therapy to the mix.

They wore glasses that replaced a light therapy box in the morning.

And they wore amber glasses in the evening.

They were then told to sleep on a regular schedule and to go to bed at a specific time.

The study found there were a lot of study participants that didn't want to do the schedule part.

They did everything else, expect the consistent schedule.

The researchers ended up dividing that into two groups.

In the people who did it as a consistent schedule, they had much stronger effects.

Their time to go to sleep went down by 17 minutes, as opposed to the other group's 8 minutes.

They had a much more obvious improvement in sleep quality. 

This last study puts a bow on this entire conversation.

 

Closing Thoughts

One of the best things we can do to support sleep is to tell our circadian clock what time of day it is by regulating the light/dark cycle. (1:08:48)

And to replicate it with bio-hacks as appropriate.

Adding in a consistent schedule is really important.

Sarah broke this 'why' down further. 

Stacy thinks this information will be very helpful for her family. 

She loves that this information is backed by science and doesn't require supplementation. 

Stacy appreciates Sarah pulling all this science together. 

A big thank you to this week's sponsor, BLUblox glasses.

Don't forget, to check them out visit this site.

And if you purchase a pair, enter the code 'PALEOVIEW' for 15% off.

They offer all kinds of solutions for whatever it is you are looking for. 

Prescription lenses are also a custom setting option. 

Don't forget, Stacy and Sarah will be back again next week with a big announcement!

They are so excited to share the news, as they have been working on this for a long time.

Thanks for listening (1:14:22)

Welcome back to the Paleo View, 398. (0:40)

For those of you who are listening in the future, we are still very much immersed in covid-19 at the time of the episode's recording.

Specifically, in the United States, the number of diagnosed cases has surpassed other countries and continues to rise.

For this week's episode, Stacy and Sarah wanted to share solutions to help us all cope with the quarantine.

Stacy's resolution for the year is to be solution-oriented and to be a problem solver, which has worked out this year.

We are all in unprecedented times, and we are all working through various stages of emotions from one day to the next.

Fluctuations in these emotions are very normal.

This period can cause trauma and will evoke stages of grief.

We are all grieving a lot of different things right now, which brings about a range of emotions.

All of this is normal.

Stacy and Sarah want to help listeners identify the things you can focus your attention and energy on in positive ways.

We want to help listeners positively and proactively funnel your energy so that if you are in a state of overwhelm you can do some things that help you.

Stacy personally put some of the examples that they are going to share on today's episode into practice last week and she greatly benefited from them.

All of the information that they are going to share is science-backed and has to do with emotional health.

 

Personal Experiences

One of the things that Sarah has been doing in her home is a chronic adaptation. (4:00)

They have had to do a lot of problem-solving to figure out how to adapt to challenges during this time.

Sarah is finding that this situation is challenging her adaptability.

It is such a dynamic situation, and so much is out of our control.

To recognize what to control in your immediate environment can be a difficult thing to assess.

What has been most beneficial for Sarah's family is to fully adhere to social distancing and physical isolation guidelines.

There are new studies looking at asymptomatic transmission and that you can still spread the virus when you are an asymptomatic host. (see here and here)

More data needs to be collected on this, but until it is available, we have to respect the guidelines that are being given.

We have to protect the vulnerable members of our community and it could be a long haul.

Sarah is asking the question, "how can I make this time something healthy for my family?".

How can we continue our priorities with a healthy diet and lifestyle? How can we support our mental health?

And how can we still have social connections and make this physical isolation sustainable?

We are all trying to figure this out.

None of us have had to do this before, and figuring out how to do it is a big challenge.

Stacy too loves the importance of distancing ourselves from the words "social distancing", but to instead think of it as physical distancing.

While we are isolated, many of us are not actually alone.

For those of you who are alone, Stacy's heart is with you.

Make sure you are getting enough time for you.

Stacy realized she wasn't getting alone time and had to make that shift.

 

Working From Home

While Stacy and Sarah are use to working from home, the challenge is that the house is now full of people. (14:10)

Sarah and Stacy are missing their time alone, and the ability to think about their selfish needs.

It impacts efficiency when you are working from home and accomodating those around you, especially students who need guidance with distance learning.

Sarah has had to set up separate workstations for everyone in the family.

They had to assess their needs and work around that when determining what each station needed.

Stacy shared a glimpse into what her workdays look like.

Set reasonable expectations for what you can accomplish each day.

Stacy also shares her schedule with her boys and lets them know what she needs them to accomplish within the time frame that she is working.

This is really helping with her effectiveness.

Remember to feel good about the things you are accomplishing!

Sarah has changed her daily routine quite a bit, and she shared more about her new schedule.

They are still living following a routine.

Bedtime is still a priority, but Sarah and her husband are no longer setting an alarm clock.

Sarah is enjoying the chance to start the day working in her pajamas.

She has been working a 7 to 3 schedule but is incorporating breaks for family time.

Exercise time has been built into a time window when her focus typically changes.

This has helped Sarah's productivity.

Since Sarah's stress levels are overall higher, she is being very acutely aware of when she needs to pivot into stress-reducing activities.

Sarah has been proactive to adapt to the day-to-day changes, emotions, stress levels, etc.

Stacy shared on the importance of thinking through how your children are feeling during this time and giving them time to express those emotions.

Feelings of chaos can trickle to those around you.

Family meetings can be a great tool to help create a platform for sharing, managing expectations, and listening to others.

In Stacy's household, they have had to recently be very mindful of their screentime usage.

For Matt and Stacy, they position it so that the kids earn their screentime by doing various tasks.

It became a positive mindset shift when the boys looked at it from the point of earning it, as opposed to screentime being taken away or reduced.

 

Distance Learning

Matt and Stacy's boys haven't yet been given the tools for distance learning. (36:20)

They will soon be rolling out optional online classes starting in mid-April.

However, Stacy doesn't exactly know what that means and she isn't going to worry about it until they need to.

Sarah noted that one of the challenges that we are having as a country is that every area is doing things differently.

The shutdown is magnifying inequities that were already there.

Sarah shared about how frustrating it is to not know what to expect because things keeping changing so frequently.

They are still trying to figure out with Sarah's kids how they will determine where the students will land within the curriculum by the end of the academic year.

For Sarah, her daughters have loved learning from home.

They too have been utilizing family meetings to identify what the kids need.

Sarah feels so much gratitude for her kid's teachers and their school, and the innovative things they are doing.

Regardless of where your school district is at in unrolling distance learning, finding a way to maintain structure and routine for kids is key.

When they need breaks, let them take breaks.

The kids will help guide what they need.

Sarah shared more about how her daughters have been guiding and structuring their routines.

Arts and crafts projects have also been a great use of time for them, especially as a way to connect with family and friends they can't see.

They have also been going through their board game closet as well.

Sarah and her husband have been working hard to maintain as much normalcy as possible, and take the things that are abnormal and use the time for family bonding.

They will continue to troubleshoot and adapt as time goes on and as time presents new challenges.

If you are not doing enrichment activities it is ok.

Take the time and space you need to decompress and spend that time with your family.

It will take time to find your new normal.

For Stacy, they have been selecting activities for boys that they can do from start to finish.

Also giving them tasks that they can own has been key.

Some more ideas from Stacy: yard work, cleaning out closets, donating old clothes and toys, pulling items from your pantry for the food bank, and reorganizing bookshelves.

Give the kids (and yourself) wins, whatever that may look like.

Set yourself for as many wins as possible.

 

Shopping

Sarah wants to acknowledge the challenge of shopping for groceries and other essentials. (51:43)

Stacy and Sarah are both tackling this differently, and they want to share some ideas and suggestions on this unique challenge.

This has been one of Sarah's biggest changes to her routine.

Sarah use to shop three to four times a week and is now picking one store and going only there.

If they don't have something that was on their life they live without it.

It has been challenging in terms of the meal planning aspect of it.

Sarah has been shopping for 10-days at a time.

It has been a mindset shift to be more flexible with meal planning and grocery shopping.

Sarah had her first grocery shopping trip recently and she wasn't prepared for how anxiety triggering the experience would be.

Part of it was the planning aspect, and the other part was how to social distance, not touch her face, utilizing self-checkout.

She also expressed her appreciation for the employees showing up to do their job.

Stacy added that one of the things we can do to express our gratitude for these essential employees is to reach out to our local stores and share your positive feedback with managers.

It is also important to advocate that these employees should receive special pay for the work they are doing to help us live comfortably.

The more we can advocate for them the more helpful it will be.

Expressing gratitude to people as you encounter them while practicing social distancing, is really important.

Stacy shared on the letter that Matt received for thanking him for his work and how special it was to receive that gesture of gratitude.

A look into Stacy's grocery shopping experience: she went once and will not be going back again.

Stacy did look into what the CDC says about where the virus can live and for how long.

It can live on soft things, but it is very low risk.

Stacy shared more about how they have been handling shipments.

Check out this resource for more information.

Sarah has been viewing things as potentially contaminated, but not necessarily requiring disinfection.

Slow shipping has been an option that Sarah has been taking advantage of for a number of reasons.

Sarah shared more on how she has handled shipments.

Each of us needs to evaluate our individual risk.

All of the recommendations that Stacy and Sarah are sharing are based on CDC and FDA resources.

Stacy has restarted her Hungry Harvest subscription, and then uses that order to meal plan off of.

She is also ordering from Butcher Box again.

They are also ordering from Thrive Market now as well.

Use this link and get $20 off, with no membership fees for 30-days.

Stacy is ordering ahead knowing that there are shipping delays right now.

Another route that Stacy is using is ordering from local stores that offer curbside pickup and/or delivery.

It is an individual choice as to which approach is going to work best for you and your mental state.

There are different ways to approach it that are going to make sense to you.

 

Mental Health

One of the things that both Stacy and Sarah have experienced with this pandemic is new mental health challenges. (1:15:30)

Give yourself the grace to feel your feelings and be ok with the ways your feelings change.

Stacy has been trying to enjoy things that they don't get to do very often.

Finn loves to bake and Stacy has been making the time to bake with him, giving him different challenges during the process.

Stacy has also been spending more time in the hot tub.

Other self-care ideas include painting your nails, taking baths, and finding pockets of things that allow you to enjoy the process.

One of the things that Sarah has been doing is calling friends and family.

Reaching out to strengthen one-on-one connections has been very helpful to Sarah's mental health.

Brushing up an old skill and an old hobby with her little brother has been very moving.

Sarah has been focused on giving herself things to do that require her whole brain.

She shared more on some of her current writing projects and how she is focused on incorporating hobbies as well.

Finding a group to collaborate with can be very beneficial.

Doing things together makes you feel a little less alone.

 

Closing Thoughts

Finding ways to not overwhelm yourself is critical during this time. (1:24:34)

Set yourself up for success longterm - this is not something that is going to end next week.

Do things that you can sustain, and not get yourself overwhelmed.

Ask for help as well.

Stacy shared information on how she is going to set boundaries and expectations around distance learning when the time comes.

Turn to a support circle when you need to vent and process emotions.

People want to hear that they are not alone in their feelings.

Be careful about being in a negative mindset.

A productive vent session can be a great goal to strive for.

There are things we can't change, but taking everything one day at a time makes it more palatable.

We are all in this together.

This is a global, community-wide effort to protect the vulnerable and our healthcare workers.

We are going to get through this and will one day tell our grandchildren about this experience.

Take a step back and look at the challenge to find a creative solution that will work for your life.

This is what we are all challenged with this normal that requires adaptation, self-sacrifice, but it is all something we are doing together for the greater good.

Thank you for tuning in, and for however you are contributing to society right now.

Stacy and Sarah will be back again next week! (1:30:39)

Welcome back to the Paleo View, episode 397. (0:40)

Last week, Stacy and Sarah thought they were on episode 397, but there was a typo and miscount.

This podcast episode is technically 396.

Our world is changing so rapidly right now, and when Sarah switched direction on last week's show, she thinks she missed updating the show notes in one spot and not the other.

There is lots going on in this world right now and Stacy and Sarah are on a mission to provide practical tips that are evergreen.

Right now with extra stress, it is likely that your sleep cycle is being impacted.

However, managing your sleep cycle is one of the most important things you can do for your health right now.

Sarah shared an update on how she is doing and what life is looking like right now.

Overall, Sarah is feeling a tremendous amount of gratitude.

Stacy shared her belly breathing practice and how she is using this calming practice.

This week Stacy's family celebrated Finn's birthday, and she shared her grateful mindset around this year's unique celebration.

 

Awareness of Body & Mind

Different types of meditations resonate with different people. (11:24)

Sarah loves a body scan meditation.

Meditation is not one size fits all; there are many different shades and colors of it.

A lot of people don't realize how disrupted their sleep is until they find a way to fix it, and they realize how different they feel.

The trigger for Stacy is whether or not she feels her body sink into the bed when she lies down.

If she doesn't feel that sink, she knows there is tension in her body and she is dealing with anxiety.

Next time you climb into bed, feel your muscles and notice how you feel physically.

This information will tell you how you are feeling emotionally.

When Stacy doesn't feel that sinking feeling when she lies down, she does three things.

First, she takes melatonin.

If she has time she will take a magnesium bath.

Then she utilizes her breathing technique.

 

Listener's Question

After the last covid-19 podcast episode, Amy submitted the following question (17:50):

Thank you, ladies, so much for your episodes on covid-19.

Both episodes (here and here) could not have come at a better time!

Your top immune-boosting tips are the two things I can't seem to get a handle on, sleep and stress.

I am a busy mom of 2, a wife and an entrepreneur, even working from home my days are crazy.

By the time I get to bed, (no Sarah, I do not have an adult bedtime) I struggle to fall asleep due to my racing stress filled thoughts.

I find myself not only stressing about the things I did not get done and the following day's to-do list but then I stress out about the lack of sleep I am getting, by laying awake stressing. HELP! 

For us super busy women, like the both of you, where do we even start in the practical realistic implementation of improving our sleep and reducing stress?

What changes will make the most impact? Is there a road map for us to follow?

Thank you again for all that you both do.

 

The Link Between the Two

Before Stacy and Sarah jump in to answer the question, Stacy wants to first say - Amy, you are not alone.

From both Stacy's perspective and what she is hearing from others on social media, a lot of people are feeling your frustrations.

Stacy also wants to plug Sarah's e-book on sleep, which you can find here, complete with an in-depth roadmap.

We have to be very committed in terms of supporting sleep and stress management in order to have this dialed in.

As soon as life gets busy, this is the easiest thing to drop.

But the reason why it is so important to look at these lifestyle factors is that they are linked.

High-stress disrupts sleep.

It can delay your ability to actually fall asleep, and you aren't able to get into a deep sleep.

In addition, it can also take the form where you wake up in the middle of the night and are unable to fall back asleep for hours.

Stress impacts sleep quality and quantity, and then not getting enough quality sleep is one of the biggest stress magnifiers. 

So when you are not getting enough sleep, your physiological response to stress (in any form), will push your body to produce more stress hormones.

As much as these are two independently important lifestyle factors to dial in, it is really important to work on them together because they are so interconnected.

 

Habit Changes

While Stacy and Sarah present these suggestions, think about which of these options you can implement easiest and immediately.

Feel a win from them, and then focus on other things.

We are all super stressed right now, and we don't need to add stress by worrying about what we are not doing.

Try to do the things that you can.

Sarah is going to divide these tips, and will first focus on the things that won't interfere with your routine.

She will then shift to the things that require more energy but yield a bigger result.

 

The Easier Things - Adult Bed Time

Think of these tips as the low hanging fruit (28:11).

These are the things you can do today, without ordering anything or leaving the house.

The first area of focus, setting an adult bedtime.

This is about making sure you are in bed for 8-hours.

Going to bed at the same time every night is equally important.

This builds predictability for your body's many systems that will help you fall asleep, stay asleep, and wake up feeling well-rested.

Step one is to solidify what time you will go to bed every night.

Once you have figured that piece out, then you can back up the bedtime to make sure you are getting enough sleep.

If we treat every day like a vacation then we lose routine.

Stacy shared the domino effect that happens when she lets her kids stay up late and how it impacts everything the next day.

It really does snowball quickly outside of your own personal sleep habits.

 

Sunlight Time

One of the things that is really challenging for us is getting sunlight exposure throughout the day, especially since we are spending much of our time inside right now. (34:22)

If you live in a neighborhood where you can go for a walk every day while still practicing social distancing, take advantage!

Make sure you are getting that bright sun exposure throughout the day to cement your circadian rhythms.

If you can't, look into purchasing a light therapy box, which are incredibly affordable these days.

Look for one that is white light, with at least 10,000 luxe.

Spend 15 to 30 minutes with it, placing it a foot to two feet away from your face, but at an angle.

This is important for your body knowing what time it is.

Evenings should be dim, and this is where amber tint glasses can be useful.

Sleep in a pitch dark bedroom.

Refer back to this melatonin podcast episode for information on this supplement.

Now is a great time to address stress management and sleep, which are two areas that tend to unravel when life gets busy.

Sarah is working to take her anxiety and use that energy towards implementing something that she would otherwise let slide.

 

Stress Relief

Moving into the stress piece, there are a few really important things that we can do. (41:09).

Just taking breaks throughout the day to just empty our brains is extremely helpful.

Find three times during the day to close your eyes and take a few deep breaths.

Take that one-minute break, three times a day as a starting place.

If you have kids at home, use that one-minute break to go play with your kids or have a dance party.

Sarah feels a night and day difference between her stress levels when she takes breaks to be silly.

It is very hard for Sarah to pull herself away when she is feeling productive.

Stacy too feels like she is a workaholic, and her family plays games with Alexa to take a brain/screen break.

This also allows them to laugh and have fun together.

Stacy reminds listeners that this is an opportunity to reconnect with your family.

You may be feeling like there is a lot you have to do for your children.

However, you can use this time to teach your children and empower them to do things for themselves.

 

Things You Can Do Now

Here are some of the things that you can do that lead to that snowball effect of overall good longterm health changes. (48:00)

Stop eating two to four hours before bedtime.

Avoid caffeine and sweets (outside of fruit) in the afternoon.

Make sure you are not vitamin D insufficient.

Don't guess - test.

Get time outside.

Make time for exercise.

Read a paper book before bed.

This is an easy way to reduce screen time.

Putting away screens an hour before bedtime is a great way to build in the downtime before bed.

Incorporate a mindfulness practice into your day.

Sarah's family is using the app Headspace, and they practice for 10-minutes a day as a family.

Be present in what you are doing.

Separate your activities so that you can have work-life balance, and so that you can be present and find fulfillment in whatever it is you are doing.

Find ways to come together virtually. Maintaining your sense of community is vital right now, even while practicing physical distancing.

Spend time with a pet! Now is a great time to foster or adopt a pet if you are able to.

Take a screen detox.

Come up with a cycle for how to make screen time work for you, and when to turn it off, because that will make a difference in your time management for sure.

 

Closing Thoughts

Sarah hopes that this collection of tips gives some food for thought on how you can use this time at home to address things that are easy to fall off the to-do list. 

Take the anxiety that is normal during this situation, and channel that into positive actions that are going to lend themselves to lifelong habits. 

Sarah hopes this is a helpful episode. 

Stacy feels helped!

She feels equipped with the tools to take action to be her best self.

Thank you, Amy, for the great question!

And thank you, listeners, for tuning in!

If you found this episode helpful, please leave a review and share it with others. 

There is a lot of information out there right now, and it is important to both Stacy and Sarah to be a steady rock during this weird, changing time. 

Thanks for listening, and we will be back again next week! (1:06:16)

Welcome back to the Paleo View, episode 397. (0:40)

Stacy and Sarah are doing a follow-up show to episode 394 to answer listener's frequently asked questions.

Since then, a lot has changed and Stacy and Sarah want to empower listeners with the latest information.

Stacy wants to remind people that if you are home with your kids, be mindful of what you are exuding in front of them.

Calm and reassurance is critical with kids right now.

 

A Follow Up Show

Sarah and Stacy each shared a bit about how they are parenting through this unique time.

It is ok to be fearful and anxious, but make sure you find the appropriate outlet and time to share on your feelings.

A lot can change by the time this show airs, but Stacy and Sarah are hoping that these points will still be helpful as this continues to evolve in the US.

For people who aren't feeling symptomatic, we could still be harboring the virus and give it unknowingly to people.

This is why we are all in quarantine and it is incredibly important to understand this.

There is this other side of the quarantine equation that has to do with taking healthy people out of the possible infection pool.

Sarah talked about other country's quarantine practices and why the US has chosen the course that we have.

If we can slow the infection rate, we will spread this out over a longer period of time, which is good because it means we won't overwhelm the medical system.

The whole point of all these steps is so that people who need treatment can get it.

We are trying to protect the more vulnerable people.

Recognize that some people who don't appear vulnerable are getting a severe course of this disease, and there is no way to predict how bad it is going to be.

We are, figuratively, coming together as a community so that we can protect our communities from overwhelming our local medical care. 

 

Updates

Stacy quickly shared an update on one of the two bills that were discussed on last week's episode(12:19)

Sarah has collected representative questions from the most common discussions that are happening on both Stacy and Sarah's channels.

WHO is quoting global mortality at 3.9%.

However, Sarah wants to emphasize that this is still very likely an overestimation due to the undercounting of mild cases.

Almost no countries are testing for mild cases right now.

South Korea still remains the exception of a country that is testing at the right level.

All other countries still need to ramp up for their testing capacity.

The mortality rate has climbed in South Korea to 0.9%, which is ten times higher than the seasonal flu.

Although this is better news than what WHO is reporting right now.

 

The Latest Findings

We are still looking at the scientific literature.

We are still looking at about 80% of people having a mild disease course.

However, Sarah wants to emphasize here what mild means in this context.

It encompasses everything short of pneumonia, and all the way down to almost no symptoms.

15 to 20% of people who are considered critical will need medical care, like supplemental oxygen.

Something like 5% of the cases are requiring more advanced support for the respiratory system.

On average, for mild symptoms, people are sick for about two weeks.

The severe and critical cases are lasting three to six weeks.

When you see news stories of worst-case scenarios, know that we completely have it in our power to make sure that things don't escalate to that point.

The people who are at higher risk of having a severe course are still older people, which starts at 50.

The other people who are more vulnerable are people with pre-existing conditions and immunocompromised people.

What people are dying from with covid-19 is acute respiratory distress syndrome or multiple organ failure syndromes.

 

Respiratory Risk Factors

Stacy asked Sarah, "do you think it's realistic to say that if you are prone to respiratory infections that you would need to be especially mindful during this period?".

There is currently no evidence that those with asthma are considered higher risk.

Stacy shared her thought process behind this.

At this point, having a history of bronchitis or pneumonia is not a risk factor.

However, some of the things that might contribute to a high frequency of bronchitis and pneumonia may be risk factors.

The lifestyle factors are still our top action items at this time.

 

Immunocompromised

Are all of us with autoimmune diseases automatically considered immunocompromised? (26:03)

The answer is no.

Autoimmune disease does not automatically imply immunocompromised.

This phrase is referring to people with HIV/AIDS, cancers that are impacting immune cells, cancer patients who are undergoing radiation or chemotherapy, transplant patients that are on immune suppressants, and those with genetic diseases that affect the immune system.

That being said, some autoimmune disease suffers are also immunocompromised.

If you are taking disease-modifying drugs or steroids to manage an autoimmune disease, your doctor may tell you that you are immunocompromised.

In general, an autoimmune diagnosis does not mean that you are immunocompromised.

Sarah wants to reassure listeners that you are not automatically in a high-risk category because you have an autoimmune disease.

If you have had great success managing your autoimmune disease with functional medicine approaches and diet and lifestyle, your immune system is probably well equipped to handle a viral infection.

 

Levels of Severity

Is the severity of the disease going to be worse for those with autoimmune conditions? (29:48)

Sarah shared information from this, this, and this study to explain what the research currently shows.

There is a time and a place for medication.

Do not discontinue your medicine without talking to your doctor if you are on immunosuppressants.

If you are on immunosuppressants, yes, you would be considered a higher risk.

Make a decision with your healthcare provider about the best path forward and take all of the precautions to protect yourself from exposure to covid-19.

It is not that autoimmune diseases increase your risk for a more severe course, it is that the immunosuppressant drugs potentially increase risk. 

Be sure to call the doctor's office first before showing up.

 

Cleaning vs. Disinfecting

Should I be used an antibacterial soap to wash my hands? And will this impact the beneficial bacteria on my skin?(36:40)

A similar question Stacy and Sarah has received has to do with the effectiveness of natural soaps.

There’s a technical difference between cleaning (where you’re removing bacteria and viruses by trapping them in your cleaning solution and rinsing/wiping them away) versus disinfecting (where you’re killing the bacteria and viruses with a powerful antimicrobial chemical). 

For cleaning, yes, natural soaps such as Dr. Bronners and Branch Basics work, make sure you’re rinsing/wiping clean, depending on the application.

For disinfecting, try 70% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol).

The EPA has a list of disinfectants that should be effective against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes covid-19) here.

Stacy has a blog post here with additional product recommendations.

Sarah pointed out that there are a lot of disinfectants out there that haven't actually been tested for their effectiveness.

Be sure to check the CDC to see if your products are actually disinfecting.

If you are thinking about using essential oils, please refer to this podcast episode.

Sarah shared her thoughts on how to best check for a product's effectiveness against covid-19.

 

Treatment

What can we take to help us feel better if we do get covid-19? (47:25)

In moderate to severe cases, call your doctor and find out what their recommendations are.

Please know that if you are in that 80%, rest and hydration are still your primary strategies.

If you have a fever, if it is not dangerously high, try not to take any medicine for it.

Sarah noted that a high fever, above 104F (and lower from susceptible individuals, you probably already know if this applies to you) can cause seizures. 

If you are going to take something, avoid NSAIDs (which suppress some aspects of the immune system), and take acetaminophen.

Call your doctor if you can’t get your fever down.

If it hurts in your chest when you are coughing, call your doctor.

And if you have any doubts, don't be afraid to call your doctor.

Any symptom relief that is going to improve sleep is going to be beneficial.

 

More Ideas

For cough, honey is a surprisingly good cough suppressant (even recommended by Mayo clinic), which you can either add to herbal tea (lots of antioxidants!) or just take a spoonful.

Eucalyptus oil, diluted with something like coconut oil, rubbed onto the chest may help act as an expectorant and cough suppressant.

If you happen to have a Joovv at home, it will help with your joint pain.

There is nothing from a lifestyle perspective that is going to prevent you from getting something.

You can Paleo as hard as you can, but sometimes that is not going to change anything.

For a concentration amount of information on what you can do from a diet and lifestyle standpoint, refer back to this podcast episode.

Get enough sleep, manage stress, have plenty of low/moderate activity throughout your day, and avoid nutrient deficiencies.

Sarah wants to really emphasize that the magnitude of effect from supplements is very small.

It is far more important to avoid nutrient deficiencies and to get your nutrients from foods.

Stacy is personally working hard to manage her sleep habits.

Look at all the things that are making you stressed and anxious, and identify what is in your control.

Instead, look at what you can focus on and what you can do best.

 

Supplements

We are conditioned now that when we don't feel well we take a pill. (1:02:10)

Even in alternative health, there is lots of food-based supplements.

Functional health doctors love to give supplements.

We don't yet have data on how supplements impact covid-19.

There is no pill that is going to substitute for going to bed early or doing something to reduce stress levels.

Other than a vitamin D supplement if you are vitamin D deficient, there is nothing else that you are going to be able to take that is going to help.

Even as Stacy and Sarah talk about supplements that are going to be beneficial, they are talking about very small effects compared to the lifestyle factors.

 

Colloidal Silver Products

The answer is no colloidal silver products are not going to help. (1:04:31)

Data on colloidal silver products are incredibly mixed.

There have been studies showing absolutely no antibiotic activity, and a couple have shown no antiviral activity.

It is also very easy to important to know that you can overdose on silver and it can be toxic.

The upper limit seems to be context-dependent.

 

Elderberry

There are two different schools of thought online.

Sarah wrote about the study showing that elderberry can reduce the severity of symptoms and duration of relevant viral infections.

It does not seem to prevent viral infections.

And should not be taken daily since long-term safety has not been established.

Studies evaluate 5-day intervention “at the first sign of illness”.

Some people are recommending against Elderberry due to concerns that it may increase the severity of or increase the risk of cytokine storms.

The safety of elderberry has never been tested long-term.

A cytokine is a chemical messenger that the immune system uses to communicate with itself.

There are dozens of different cytokines.

Sarah shared more on cytokines and what they do in the body.

There has been some cytokine profiling done of those patients with covid-19, and they are showing that this is potentially causing the complications.

The cytokine storm is not unique to covid-19.

Doctors are trying to figure out the best treatment protocols.

There is a bit of research out there on the effects on the elderberry, and Sarah broke those down in greater detail.

The studies Sarah referred to are here, here, here and here.

Sarah appreciates the voices of caution on the use of elderberry out there.

The fact is we don’t know if it would help with covid-19.

All in all, Sarah is not convinced elderberry would contribute to cytokine storm, but caution is the better part of valor.

 

Additional Supplements

Other people have asked about vitamin C, zinc, and vitamin D. (1:21:09)

With vitamin D, you are definitely supporting your immune system by addressing a deficiency.

Testing your vitamin D levels is a great action item right now.

Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce infection rates.

However, 73% of Americans don't get enough zinc.

Sarah recommends using a food journal like MyFitnessPal or Cronometer to see how much zinc you are getting from your food.

Make sure you are choosing foods that help you get enough zinc.

Sarah thinks there is a compelling reason to avoid deficiency and not a compelling reason to supplement.

The same can be said for vitamin C.

Eating fruits and vegetables with vitamin C are going to provide a number of benefits.

There are also recommendations floating around to take SA glutathione and vitamin A as well as d+k2.

In general, Sarah thinks it’s best to be skeptical of any claims that a supplement will protect you from covid-19.

All of the supplements recommended by Dr. Lynch are all general immune health nutrients, and certainly being deficient is problematic.

There’s no evidence that glutathione, vitamin A or K2 supplementation can reduce infections or infection severity.

Be sure to talk to your doctor about supplementation for feedback unique to you.

The things that are actually going to help us is social distancing, hand washing, cleaning, getting enough sleep, managing stress, being active, getting a nutrient-dense diet, and following quarantine protocols.

 

Additional Suggestions

Stacy wants to emphasize the mentality part of this. (1:26:30)

There is endless science on how stress negatively affects our bodies in a multitude of ways. 

Look for ways to help yourself feel better. 

Don't listen to this podcast and feel stressed that you need to be doing more things.

Take a deep breath or go for a walk. 

Stacy shared ways that she is looking for things she can own and the problems she can solve.

There are things that each of us can control. 

Feel grateful for what you do have, whatever that may be. 

Most of us our families are healthy, and you can be appreciative and grateful for that. 

The more things you can be grateful for the more it is going to help you calm down and destress. 

Mail is still being delivered, trash is still being picked up, grocery stores are still open. 

There is a lot of gratitude we can find around us, we just have to be willing to pause and look for it.

 

Wrap Up

Stacy shared her appreciation for all the prep-work Sarah did for this week's podcast episode. 

Sarah shared with listeners that we will host as many covid-19 podcast episodes as needed throughout this pandemic. (1:31:06)

If you have more questions as the situation evolves, please pass those along use Stacy and Sarah's contact forms on their sites or submit via social media.

Thank you again for tuning in! And for your support, for leaving reviews, and for using the affiliate links on their sites. 

Stacy echoed Sarah's appreciation for all that the listeners and fans do to support their work.

Thanks for listening! Stacy and Sarah will be back again next week! (1:33:36)

Welcome to episode 395 of The Paleo View! (0:40)

It is opposite day again because Stacy has prepared a super detailed, science-backed, skincare follow up show.

Sarah once again gets to be the comic relief.

This episode is a follow up to the non-toxic skincare episode but will cover more than just skincare.

There has been a lot of information about toxins in general, and Stacy wants to dive into what this means.

This week Stacy is going to dive into gluten in personal care products, heavy metals in personal care, fragrances, asbestos, and more.

When discussing toxins, Stacy wants us to think about 'is something actually poisonous' or is it simply something that doesn't work for you.

Like many things that are clickbait on the internet, you will find people saying things that are questionable.

This show will be science-based as Stacy and Sarah dive into what is actually toxic, poisonous, problematic things for you to use on your body and why.

Sarah clarified how Stacy is defining the words toxic, sensitivity, healthy and safe.

 

Does Gluten in Skincare Matter?

The first thing Stacy is going to talk about is the thing that Stacy receives the most questions on, which is gluten in skincare. (4:31)

Even if there is gluten in a personal care product that would not make it toxic.

Something can still be non-toxic and natural and have gluten in it.

Ingredients and reading labels, just like with food, is going to be important in your personal care products.

How do you learn how to read the labels when looking for gluten?

It is important to understand that gluten-containing and derived from on a label are not the same thing.

You have some ingredients that are going to be ok for most people because they are not gluten-containing, even though they are derived from.

However, then you have a different class of ingredients that are inclusive of the protein, which is gluten.

So when you are thinking, "what do I need to look for?", the questions that you need to be asking are as follows:

How sensitive to gluten are you?

Do you have a weekend immune system or gut dysbiosis?

Do you have an autoimmune condition?

Or skin that is weakened with open wounds?

 

More on Gluten Absorption

Our skin is a really good barrier and gluten protein, in particular, is too big for our skin to absorb.

So if you have healthy skin and you are not super sensitive (i.e. you don't have celiac disease or an autoimmune disease), then using gluten in your skincare might actually be ok for you.

Sarah posed the question that it depends on how the product is derived and explained this in greater detail.

If you are someone who suspects a higher sensitivity, the potential for problems could be higher

When the structure of gluten changes, even if you are a healthy person, your skin would be absorbing it.

For Stacy, she does not touch hydrolyzed anything, even if it's fermented.

Things that will impact your absorption of anything include steamed skin, dermabrasion, an open wound, and any sort of treatment to your skin like light treatment.

Be aware that when you do these treatments your skin is even more prone to absorb what is being applied topically. (12:50)

Stacy also avoids gluten-derived products for the mouth, the hands, or sprays, since you are absorbing these products via consumption.

It is not necessarily black or white.

It is more nuanced and up to personal needs and health history.

Ingredients to avoid include HYDROLYZED WHEAT PROTEIN, SECALE CEREALE (RYE) SEED EXTRACT, and HYDROLYZED HYALURONIC ACID.

Again, this is bio-individual and depends on the health of your skin.

Ingredients that Stacy feels comfortable including (after personally testing) are HYALURONIC ACID and SODIUM HYALURONATE, ARACHIDYL GLUCOSIDE, BETA-GLUCAN, SCLEROTIUM GUM, and SORBITOL. 

The line of products that Stacy uses, BeautyCounter, does gluten testing on their products and are certified gluten-free.

Sarah mentioned that there is some concern in the medical community that the testing criteria for gluten-free is not rigid enough for celiacs.

The science on this hasn't been clear enough to say what that guideline should be changed to, so there is still uncertainty around this.

If you are celiac or have severe gluten-sensitivity, utilizing a skin patch test is best.

 

Heavy Metals

A few years ago Stacy dove headfirst into the research that is available on heavy metal in personal care products. (24:15)

Again, this has all been heavily researched and what Stacy is going to share is backed by science.

Inhalation and ingestion of particular heavy metals are absorbed 120 times more than if it were put on your skin.

The most important thing that you need to switch over are things that you breathe or consume.

Sarah thinks it would be interesting to see how compromised skin would absorb toxins at an even greater amount.

Cadmium is a common heavy metal in personal care products that Stacy shared more about.

Its common route of entry is inhalation, ingestion, and absorption through the skin.

This commonly found toxin causes anemia, birth defects, impairment of pulmonary function, renal dysfunction, bone changes, liver damage (hepatotoxicity), kidney damage (nephrotoxicity), iron deficiency, oxidative stress.

 

Mercury

Mercury causes disruption of the nervous system, damage to brain functions, DNA damage and chromosomal damage, allergic reactions, tiredness and headaches, negative reproductive effects (sperm damage, birth defects, and miscarriages).

What gets to Stacy about personal care products is that a lot of them are linked to problems with infertility and reproductive health damage.

We find often that newborns, when their blood is tested when they come out of the womb, have high levels of ingredients and toxins in them.

 

Other Common Heavy Metals

Arsenic is absorbed through inhalation and ingestion, so not through the skin.

This heavy metal causes birth defects, carcinogen: lung, skin, liver, bladder, and kidneys, GI damage, severe vomiting, diarrhea, death.

Lead is a common one that most people think of when they think about toxins in beauty products.

It is regulated in the paint you put on your walls, but not in the lipstick you put on your mouth.

The last toxin that Stacy wants to mention is aluminum.

It is absorbed through inhalation, ingestion, and absorption through the skin

And aluminum can cause oxidative stress, aluminosis and dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease and breast cancer.

Using a natural or clean beauty brand does not mean that your product(s) are free of heavy metals.

It is very important to work with a brand that certifying or testing that their products do not contain heavy metals.

Heavy metals are by definition natural.

All of the points that Stacy raises make it abundantly clear that this industry needs to be regulated.

There need to be third-party testing laws and labeling laws.

Stacy forgot to mention that she is one of two representatives from Virginia who will get to go to DC to advocate for everyone to have means and access to safer personal care products. 

In heavy metal toxicity, there are some studies out there. 

One in particular that Stacy mentioned showed that exposure (even in low concentrations) causes a potential health risk to the user because they accumulate in the body over time. 

Especially when people have specific conditions or a compromised immune system, they are more likely to see ill effects. 

 

The Fragrances Loop Hole

There is absolutely no regulation that exists on what companies can or cannot put on the label of their products. (43:16)

Almost always paraben is a binder in fragrance, but products will use the label paraben-free since the paraben is technically in the fragrance. 

For Stacy, if the word fragrance is anywhere on any label she doesn't touch it. 

The loophole allows companies to trick consumers by claiming that the full ingredients list is protected by trade secrets. 

So companies are hiding ingredients claiming its fragrance.

Fragrance is more than just perfume.

It is most commonly found in household products. 

In 2009 testing was done on Febreeze Air Effects and they detected 89 airborne contaminants that were not disclosed on the label. 

There was a study done in the Journal of Air Quality Atmosphere and Health, which studied air pollution from laundry detergent. 

The study determined that detergent was releasing carcinogens into the air. 

Sarah noted that this also means that there are carcinogens in your clothes and on your skin at the end. 

Companies may believe that exposure to these toxins in small doses isn't going to hurt people. 

However, we know for a fact that it has been determined for many of these toxins that no small amount of exposure is safe.

If you were only getting exposed to a small amount maybe it wouldn't be toxic and your body would detoxify.

But these toxins are all around us and we are not absorbing them in small amounts. 

The average woman puts 14 personal care products on her person a day.

So when you think about how many ingredients are in those products and how they are amplified in the system with our laundry products and household cleaning products, our bodies cannot detoxify this load. 

We as consumers have to research the brands we are choosing to use and understand their integrity.

 

Talc & Asbestos

There is a documentary out that released in December 2019 called Toxic Beauty. (53:05)

Stacy is all for education, but because there were specific FDA recalls that happened and specific talking points were shared on talc it caused widespread panic. 

Unless the brand you use CERTIFIES their talc is asbestos-free, avoid it.

Saying “talc causes cancer” isn’t correct.

We need to be careful what we say because when we are factually incorrect we lose credibility.

Instead, we say: Talc can be contaminated with asbestos, a known carcinogen.

EWG just did another test, less than a month ago, and found more asbestos, which you can read more about here.

Stacy put this higher absorption into perspective.

Within just three days of switching your personal care products to cleaner options, you are able to show a significant reduction in the toxins found in your body. 

This makes a huge difference in teens whose hormones are still sensitive. 

Make sure that you are using a brand that continually tests. 

 

Closing Thoughts

The first step is to be an informed consumer. 

The second piece is to be an advocate for safer options.

You can text 'BETTERBEAUTY' to 52886.

A form letter will be auto-populated for you, and then you can edit it to make it more personal.

The more personal the letter is, the better.

 There are two bills in the house related to better beauty, and Stacy described these in greater detail. 

There is a division within BeautyCounter that is dedicated to advocacy.

It isn't tied to their brand, it is part of what they use their profits for because they want everyone to have access to safe products.

They are hoping to expose the mica industry because it is abused on ingredient lists. 

There is a campaign to ask your lawmakers to look into enforcing the fairtrade and lack of child labor into the mic industry. 

You can text 'MICA' to 52886 to help with this. 

Continuing to support Stacy through BeautyCounter allows them to better lobby for these changes.

BeautyCounter is working to help other safe brands.

We have to be a voice as consumers and speak up to demand protection.

If you have any follow up questions about toxins or personal care product ingredients feel free to email Stacy or reach out to her on social media. 

Additional Resources: 

Sarah thanked Stacy for all the research she did for this episode.

She thinks this will be an awesome resource for listeners. 

Don't forget to support the show by leaving a review wherever you listen to this podcast. 

Or tell someone about the show and share a favorite episode with them. 

Thanks for listening!

Stacy and Sarah will be back again next week! (1:07:17)

Welcome to episode 394 of The Paleo View. (0:40)

This week Stacy and Sarah thought it would be good to discuss what you can do to prepare yourself for the incoming coronavirus.

Stacy and Sarah will focus on how we can become educated on what this virus is and what we can do to protect our health and the health of our loved ones.

It is going to get a little scientific, but the goal is to give listeners solution-oriented ideas to move forward with.

One of the challenges that we have right now with covid-19 is that there are a lot of unknowns.

This episode is being recorded on Tuesday, March 3, and Sarah is going to present on the latest science available through that point.

The goal of this show is to cut through the hype and fear.

Sarah wants to provide listeners with science-based information and action steps for preparation.

Specifically, the focus is going to be on diet and lifestyle things that you can do to support your immune system.

Sarah's inbox has been flooded on questions around covid-19.

In response, Sarah has decided to put together a free e-lecture series called Immune Health on a Budget.

It will be available on March 25.

However, you can sign up now to make sure you have access to that once available.

 

What is covid-19?

Covid-19 is the name of the illness that is caused by this new novel coronavirus.

The virus has been named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

This virus has been called SARS-CoV-2.

It is an RNA virus.

Some of the symptoms are from our immune system activation, and some are from the damage being caused by the high viral load.

Where this came from will be more fully understood in time.

This one appears to be zoonotic.

It likely originated in chrysanthemum bats and passed onto humans via pangolin. 

The very good news is that this virus is not mutating very quickly.

It makes it easier for studies to conduct research since it is not a moving target.

 

The Symptoms

Something like 80% of people who get covid-19 get what is like a mild head cold. (8:54)

There is already some evidence that there are people who can be completely asymptomatic.

The vast majority of cases are mild.

83 to 90% of patients who seek medical care have a fever.

46 to 82% have a cough.

31% have shortness of breath.

11 to 44% have fatigue or muscle pain.

There have been some other symptoms reported without a good idea of their frequency.

These are sore throat (especially early on), abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Low white blood cell count is common, and also elevated liver enzymes.

In the severe course of the disease, this is causing viral pneumonia.

Most of the data that we have is out of China, and we can expect these results to look fairly different when covid-19 hits other countries.

This is preliminary data that will change in the days and weeks to come.

 

Vulnerable Populations

Older patients appear to be more vulnerable to the disease. (13:05)

The median age of the infected is in the 50's.

The median age of the people who have succumbed to covid-19 is around 70 and typically have had other chronic health problems.

These health problems include diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease.

23 to 32% of patients have a severe course (viral pneumonia) requiring intensive care for respiratory support.

This is likely an overestimation because the minor and asymptomatic cases are not being counted very well in most places.

Similar to H1-N1 in 2009, the preliminary data looked scarier than it turned out to be.

Among those patients that were hospitalized for viral pneumonia from covid-19 in China, there is about a 4 to 15% mortality rate.

The overall mortality rate is estimated at around 2%.

This is very likely to change since mild cases are not being accounted for very well.

It is very important to understand where these numbers are from and how they are likely to change.

 

Transmission

The incubation period ranges from 1 to 14 days.

Although recent case reports suggest that the incubation period may be as long as 24 days.

This will become more clear as we have more data.

Currently, it is believed to be primarily transmitted through respiratory transmission. (21:15)

There have been some other tests showing RNA in stool and blood, so there may be other modes of transmission.

If confirmed that the virus can be spread by stool, then different types of precautions may be necessary.

Transmission from an asymptomatic or presymptomatic carrier appears to be possible, which, if confirmed in larger studies, will have important implications for screening and isolation.

The reproductive number (R0) (the expected number of secondary cases produced by a single infected person in a susceptible population) is between 2 and 3. 

Instead, many people may be asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms and are spreading the virus without knowing it.

 

Is this a pandemic?

An epidemic is an illness resulting in death with sustained person-to-person spread within a community. (25:46)

A pandemic is an epidemic that is occurring in multiple countries with worldwide spread.

Covid-19 is in 64 different countries, which definitely counts as worldwide spread.

As of right now, it looks like it is isolated to certain spots, which is why the WHO has not yet declared covid-19 a pandemic.

Where Sarah is getting this information is not from media sources.

There have been over 400 scientific studies that have been published already on this virus and this outbreak.

These are Sarah's primary sources of information on this topic.

The WHO and CDC have been great sources of information providing actual data.

The question when we talk about a global pandemic is what percent of the population could end up being infected.

This is something that is very hard to predict.

Right now there are a lot of scary stats that are being reported through media channels.

Covid-19 is potentially a little bit more infectious than the flu.

However, we need more data to really understand this detail.

The country that has had the most aggressive testing so far is South Korea.

Sarah shared more information on South Korea's data and what this will represent on a global level.

 

Reducing Exposure

The CDC guidelines recommend staying home when you feel sick. (32:01)

Regardless of whether or not you think you could be sick with covid-19, this is how you prevent spreading germs to others.

Stacy also encouraged leaders to make this point very clear to their team members.

This will especially help vulnerable populations.

Only 5% of Americans wash their hands properly.

Sarah fully admits that until a few days ago, she was part of the 95% of Americans.

There are tons of studies showing that washing your hands can dramatically decrease infection rates.

Avoid touching your eyes and mouth.

To properly wash your hands, scrub them with soap on them for 20 seconds.

Wet them, put soap on them, lather up your hands, and then rinse.

Wash under your nails and between your fingers.

If you are in a public bathroom, turn off the faucet with the paper towel you are drying your hands with.

Also open the bathroom door, when in public, with the same paper towel you used to dry your hands.

This virus is very susceptible to soaps and cleaners. 

Anything you are already using is probably great.

Sarah has everyone wash their hands when they come in the door, before setting the table, handling food, eating, going to the bathroom, or if anyone coughs or sneezes.

The CDC is also recommending that people avoid high-risk areas and very crowded places.

Another key recommendation is that most people do not need to wear face masks.

The only masks that are actually effective are N-95 and higher-rated masks.

There may be a shortage and medical personnel may not have appropriate protection.

If you are not a high-risk individual, do not horde N-95 masks.

 

What to Do If You Think You Have It

Testing in America is about to become much more widespread. (41:10)

If you think you have covid-19, whether or not you have traveled, go to the doctor and get tested.

Quarantine yourself to minimize your exposure to others.

Do all the things you would do to recover from the cold and flu.

Rest, hydrate, and seek medical intervention if needed.

Don't be a hero.

There are people who need supplemental oxygen or ventilation support.

Antivirals have had some success in preliminary clinical trials, be open to medical intervention.

This is not the time to be skeptical of the medical community.

Avoid corticosteroids unless indicated for some other reason.

Seek a second opinion if you are prescribed corticosteroids.

Sarah thinks it is very important right now to protect others.

So if you are sick with anything, stay home and don't expose others.

 

Supporting Your Immune System: Sleep

All of the things that Stacy and Sarah talk about on this podcast are important for reducing inflammation. (45:09)

These are the things that are easy to let slide when life gets busy.

This is an important time to reflect on what we are doing diet and lifestyle-wise and see where we can improve so that we can best support our immune systems.

Sarah is going to cover all of this stuff in greater detail in her lecture series, which you can sign up for here.

Take the anxiety you are channeling into the unknown of covid-19 and turn it into better implementation of diet and lifestyle choices. 

Use this as a motivator to make a change.

The top area of focus to look at is sleep.

Getting proper sleep is critical to immune function.

There was a well-designed study published in 2015, looking at 164 people.

They were first screened using an actiwatch for 7 consecutive nights to measure sleep.

They also kept a sleep diary (questionnaires for control variables)

After being segmented based on the initial data, they were isolated in a hotel for 6 days.

On day 1, rhinovirus was administered nasally.

Data was measured for those 6 days, and follow up was done at 28.

Sleep duration was the biggest predictor of whether or not the people would get a cold (not sleep fragmentation or sleep efficiency).

If sleep is not dialed in for you, this is the time to do it.

Sarah recommends being in bed for 8 1/2 to 9 hours before your alarm goes off.

 

Supporting Your Immune System: Stress Management

Stress is about the same in terms of the impact it can have on our susceptibility to infection.

There was a similarly designed study using a stress index.

The more stressed a person was, the more likely they were to get that virus that they were exposed to.

The high-stress people had a nearly sixfold increase in infection rates.

There were other studies with similar findings.

Stress and sleep go together.

It is really hard to work on one and not work on the other.

The best thing you can do to support your sleep is to manage your stress and go to bed at a regular time.

The best thing you can do to reduce your stress is to get enough sleep.

Mindfulness practices, going for a walk outside, and other calming practices can all help here.

 

Additional Steps to Take

The last lifestyle thing that is really important is getting lots of low and moderate-intensity activity while avoiding strenuous or high-intensity activity. (58:28)

All of these lifestyle factors work together.

In terms of nutrition, vitamin D levels will make a difference to your immune health.

Be sure to refer to this episode, but getting tested and supplementing as needed is recommended.

Also up your nutrient density focusing on antioxidants, fiber and vitamin C.

Eat tons of veggies and fruit.

Eating three or more servings of fruit a day causes a reduced rate of upper respiratory infections.

If you are going to have eight servings of fruits and vegetables a day, have five be vegetables and three be fruit.

Vitamin E is another important nutrient for supporting the immune system.

We can get this nutrient through olives, avocados, olive/avocado oil, nuts, and seeds.

Omega-3's are also very important.

Too high fat can be problematic for immune function, so be sure to balance your macros.

Vitamin A and vitamin D coming from liver and other organ meat is important.

Zinc from shellfish is very important as well.

A healthy gut microbiome can improve our ability to fight off an infection.

Getting probiotics from fermented foods is great, but supplementing with a probiotic is a great idea as well.

Stacy and Sarah prefer Thrive probiotic.

You can save 15% off with the code 'PaleoView15'.

 

Closing Thoughts

We are still waiting for more data on covid-19, but fine-tuning your diet and lifestyle habits is the thing you can do to prepare right now. 

Stacy is looking at the things she can change in a realistic and sustainable way.

Don't let this full list of recommendations overwhelm you so that you do nothing.

Ask yourself what habits changes feel manageable to you.

Reminder: Immune Health on a Budget, which will go into detail on how we can support our immune systems in the face of covid-19, will be FREE and live on March 25th. 

Sign up to watch it live here.

If you can't watch it live, sign up so that you receive the replay.

Sarah is hoping that by March 25 we have more data to act on

Stacy thanked Sarah for pulling together all of this information.

Thank you for listening, and be sure to send follow up questions to Stacy and Sarah!

We will be back again next week! (1:13:53)

Welcome back to the Paleo View, episode 393 if we have done our simple math correctly! (0:40)

Stacy received a few messages this week from people who are catching up on old episodes of The Paleo View.

Sarah loves the way this show has evolved over the years.

When you focus on education and science and always being open to learning more and always working to achieve your healthiest self, it might look different in eight years.

Sarah loves that they give listeners this really broad education.

They share everything surrounding these health topics and really get into the details so that people can understand their own bodies and make informed day to day choices.

That is what Sarah feels all of this is about.

Being rooted in science gives us room to learn, change and evolve.

Sarah always wants her recommendations to reflect the latest science.

Whatever labels you identify with, Sarah and Stacy hope that the information on this podcast helps you make the best choices for you.

 

A New Topic for The Paleo View

On this episode, Stacy and Sarah are going to talk about CBD products.

Stacy wants listeners to go into this open-minded, just as Stacy and Sarah went into their research open-minded.

The science changed Stacy's mind.

Keep an open mind and see if the information resonates with you in some way.

Stacy has seen a significant change in her husband since he started taking CBD.

When anxiety gets extreme for Stacy, she too takes CBD.

For this week's episode, when Stacy and Sarah were looking for a sponsor they wanted to find someone who tested the CBD and used an organic growing process and had control over their supply chain.

Stacy and Sarah partnered with One Farm because they check all of those boxes.

Sarah really likes One Farm's extraction process as it is chemical-free.

They control every step of their production process.

Their flavorings are purely made with essential oil and are very palatable to consume.

Stacy and Sarah are very excited to welcome this new sponsor.

If you would like to try One Farm, use the code 'PALEOVIEW' at checkout and receive 15% off.

 

What is CBD?

CBD is an abbreviation for the phytochemical cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. (12:30)

This is a different constituent from THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the phytochemical responsible for the mental changes associated with marijuana use.

When we talk about CBD, we’re talking about an isolated chemical compound from Cannabis that will not have any effects on personality apart from potentially being calming/relaxing.

Stacy wanted to make it clear to listeners that CBD is legal in all 50 states.

It works by interfacing with the endocannabinoid system. 

The endocannabinoid system is one of the key endogenous systems regulating pain sensation, with modulatory actions at all stages of pain processing pathways.

Because it is part of this pain sensory system it is also part of all physiological systems that modulate healing.

This is also the same system in the body that might make you feel physical pain when you feel intense emotional pain.

So it is connecting pain neurons.

The endocannabinoid system is involved in a host of homeostatic and physiologic functions, including modulation of pain and inflammation.

Chronic pain is a symptom of so many things. (26:14)

And chronic pain itself can cause so many things, like anxiety, irritability, low self-esteem, decreased productivity, depression, insomnia, suicide risks and more.

Stacy shared a bit about her experience with chronic pain.

There is a lot of research pointing to a fundamental role in the endocannabinoid system with inflammatory diseases that are related to lifestyle. 

 

How CBD Works in the Body

The way that CBD works in the body is by binding with these two families of receptors that we have. (30:47)

They are called CB1 and CB2, and these are the two main receptors of our endocannabinoid system.

In general, CB1 receptors are found in the central nervous system.

CB2 receptors are found in the periphery and are found in virtually every tissue in the human body.

Depending on which receptor is being bound, this is part of why there is both an impact on immune function and neurotransmitter function.

In particular, Sarah thinks it's very interesting to look at how CBD is changing or activating neurotransmitters.

CBD is changing serotonin, which creates this cascade of chemical reactions.

The end product is increasing the production of serotonin.

CBD is also able to interact with our GABA system, which is our main calming neurotransmitter.

There are also other receptors that CBD can potentially react with.

These are effects that are separate from the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

It has a direct impact on bone mineralization.

CBD also appears to reduce cell division of cancer cells and seems to degrade the plaque associated with Alzheimer's disease.

There is also an impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolism.

 

Digging Deeper Into the Science

Overall CBD is anti-inflammatory. (38:05)

It is known to inhibit some really important chemical messages of inflammation.

This anti-inflammatory effect has been studied in a variety of different diseases in which inflammation is part of the pathogenesis.

One well-studied example is inflammatory lung disease.

There is a lot of evidence that use of CBD reduces the immune response, allowing the lungs to function appropriately.

Specifically, CBD inhibited the migration and action of several immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes and their associated pro-inflammatory cytokines.

CBD has also been studied in neurodegenerative diseases Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and HIV-associated dementia as well as cancer.

In addition, CBD is being studied as an immunomodulating compound in the management of autoimmune diseases.

This acts by reprogramming pathological memory T cells (the ones that tell the immune system to attack our bodies).

Just taking out these little bits and pieces, you can see why this is a topic that Stacy and Sarah felt was worthwhile tackling.

CBD is something that has the possibility of being an adjunct in many situations that is going to potentially add to how our body is positively responding to all of the other healthy diet and lifestyle things that we are doing.

 

Personal Application

Stacy wanted to point out that they are not medical professionals. (46:13)

If you are going to embark upon trying CBD to see how it can help your health, pay attention to how it makes you feel.

Stacy shared her experience with incorporating CBD into her life and how she monitored her body's response.

Make sure that you use a brand that is consistent and quality, which is why Stacy and Sarah partnered with One Farm.

Sarah feels like this is the right place to talk about the boundaries of the knowledge of CBD. 

We understand a lot of the mechanisms, we have preliminary data showing benefits in a lot of different chronic disease states, and we can understand what is happening for that benefit.

However, what we don't yet have is dose-response studies.

We don't have details on how much, how often, or what form for any disease states. 

Sarah pointed out that as with any supplement, it is best to talk to your doctor first before incorporating it.

There are also possible drug interactions that you must be careful with, which is why you need to involve your doctor in this process. 

Keep in mind that the science is really exciting, but we are not at the point yet where the science paints a full picture. 

 

Closing Thoughts

If you are compelled by the science of CBD and it is something you would like to experiment with (with medical supervision) want to experiment with, Stacy and Sarah are supporters of One Farm.  (55:14)

You can learn more at this link

And if you are ready to order, you can get 15% off with the code 'PALEOVIEW'.

Stacy thanked Sarah for diving into the science. 

Thank you for listening! 

If you enjoyed the show, please be sure to share it with others who would appreciate this information.

We will be back again next week! (57:03)

  On this week's episode, Stacy and Sarah are updating us about mushrooms! Since our last episode, Episode 307, we've discovered so much new information on mushrooms. Sarah considers them to be another food group! Find out why on Episode 392!

 

If you enjoy the show, please review it on iTunes!

The Paleo View (TPV), Episode 392: Are Mushrooms Really Magic? Part 2

Introduction (0:44)

  • Stacy isn't in charge this week! Time for Sarah to nerd out!
  • Sarah is almost done with her gut microbiome book. She thinks only 2 months before she turns it in.
  • Now that she has all this information on the microbiome, it's now of equal importance as nutrient density.
  • "One of the foods that I have realized needs to be its own food group, needs to be emphasized, that just doesn't get enough play in any health conscious community is mushrooms."
  • We did an episode on mushroom extracts in episode 307, but we only scratched the surface.
  • Now we see mushrooms as a foundational food. We'll explore why in this episode.
  • Stacy wants to see if we can figure out why she craves mushrooms with her steak when she has PMS

Sponsored Episode by Real Mushrooms (8:48)

  • Real Mushrooms is the premier provider of organic mushroom extracts, verified for the beneficial medicinal compounds like beta-glucans and free from starchy fillers like grains. With over 40 years of mushroom growing experience, Real Mushrooms prides itself on providing a transparent source of medicinal mushrooms that you can trust.
  • Sarah has fallen in love with their super high quality, lab tested mushroom extracts as powder or pill or chocolate!
  • Landing Page: https://www.realmushrooms.com/lp-thepaleoview/
  • Deal: 25% off, no coupon needed

What mushrooms are their own food group (11:41)

  • Not a vegetable! Fungus are a different kingdom from plants.
  • Unique phytochemicals we can’t get anywhere else: polyphenols, triterpenes.
  • Unique fiber we can’t get anywhere else: chitin, beta-glucans, chitosan
  • Extremely nutrient dense
  • Uniquely beneficial for the gut microbiome (mediates health benefits)
  • A 100-gram serving of the least impressive mushroom (the white or common mushroom), raw, contains a whopping 24% of the RDA of vitamin B2, 18% of vitamin B3, 15% of vitamin B5, 16% of copper, 13% of selenium, 9% each of phosphorous and potassium, and smaller but still impressive amounts of vitamins B1, B6, B9, C and D as well as iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc—all for only 22 calories.
  • While we don't count calories, that's certainly nutrient dense!
  • Phytochemicals and fiber are very important for the gut microbiome. And then the gut microbiome breaks down nutrients for us to use.

Phenolic compounds (17:50)

  • All antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many other beneficial properties.
  • protocatechuic acid. Studies suggest protocatechuic acid is a potent antioxidant that can reduce inflammation, protect the liver from damage, prevent cancer, protect against ulcers, and protect against cardiovascular disease, in addition to both anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties.
  • gentisic acid. Studies suggest gentisic acid has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antioxidant properties, can protect cells from damage caused by gamma radiation, can protect the liver from damage, and enhances antioxidant enzyme activity.
  • gallic acid. Studies show that gallic acid has potent antioxidant effects, reduces inflammation, and may protect against cardiovascular disease, cancer, and infection. In fact, gallic acid may prove useful in the treatment of depression, cancer, and some types of infection.
  • vanillic acid. Studies show that vanillic acid has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may even act as a pain reliever. It’s also cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial.
  • p-coumaric acid. Studies suggest p-coumaric acid can reduce inflammation, reduce intestinal inflammation, regulate the immune system, improve bone density, act as an antidepressant, prevent cancer, protect against kidney damage, and protect against tissue damage caused by drugs and alcohol.
  • Cinnamic acid. Another potent antioxidant, studies suggest that cinnamic acid has antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties in addition to protecting against cancer and diabetes.
  • syringic acid. Studies show that syringic acid may protect against cancer, diabetes, liver damage and lung damage.
  • myricetin. Studies show that myricetin is a superstar thanks to its strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities. It may protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, as well as cardiovascular disease, liver damage, and glaucoma. Myricetin also protects against photoaging, thrombosis, hypertention, allergies and can even act as a pain reliever!
  • catechin. Studies show that catechins act as antioxidants but also boost the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Catechins are also anti-inflammatory and modulate the immune system, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and can boost metabolism and promote healthy weight loss.
  • Catechin also helps shifting the gut microbiome towards a healthy microbiome from an obese microbiome. Present when they do a fecal transplant in mice.

Triterpenes (26:37)

  • Mushrooms are also particularly rich in triterpenes (including ergosterol, ganoleucoin, ganoderic acid and pyrrole alkaloids), which have a variety of properties that are important for cancer prevention, including antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenic.
  • About 80 different triterpenes have been isolated from reishi alone, some of which are known to kill hepatoma cells (liver cancer cells), to inhibit histamine release from mast cells (anti-allergic effect), to have cardioprotective effects (by modulating angiotensin) and hepatoprotective activity.

Fiber (29:28)

Chitin

  • Chitin is a type of fermentable oligosaccharide fiber made of long chains of a glucose derivative called N-acetylglucosamine with amino acids attached.
  • It can only be obtained from mushrooms and other fungi, insect exoskeletons, fish scales, and shellfish shells.
  • In studies, chitin has been shown to support the growth of species from Bifidobacterium (including Bifidobacterium animalis), Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bacteroides while also decreasing the abundance of the inflammatory microbe Desulfovibrio.
  • In mice, chitin oligosaccharides are also able to modulate the gut microbiota to combat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice, inhibiting the destruction of the gut barrier, restoring the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio to what it was before high-fat feeding, and reversing the decreases in Porphyromonadaceae, Deferribacteraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae and the increases in Rhodospirillaceae, Christensenellaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae induced by high-fat feeding.
  • At the genus level, chitin fiber dramatically increased levels of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bacteroides in these mice, while decreasing the abundance of the less favorable Desulfovibrio. In human fecal culture, chitin-glucan fiber also beneficially increases the Lactobacillus/Enterococcus ratio.

Chitosan

  • Chitosan is also composed of a long chain of N-acetylglucosamine molecules, but it also contains randomly distributed D-glucosamine molecules linked in a beta configuration.
  • It is only naturally-occurring in the cell walls of fungi, like mushrooms.
  • In mice, chitosan increases gut microbial diversity (along with a general increase in Bacteroidetes and a decrease in Firmicutes) and decreases levels of potentially pathogenic genera Escherichia and Shigella.
  • In diabetic mice, chitosan has also been shown to reshape the microbiota to induce an anti-diabetic effect, relieving dysbiosis by raising levels of Akkermansia muciniphilia and suppressing the growth of Helicobacter.

Beta-Glucans

  • Glucans are polysaccharides derived from D-glucose, linked by either alpha-glycosidic bonds (making them alpha-glucans) or beta-glycosidic bonds (making them beta-glucans).
  • Mushrooms are particularly rich sources of beta-glucans (more specifically (1-3),(1-6)-beta-glucans which are different than the (1,4)-beta-glucans in grains like oats), which feed anaerobic microbes in the gut and can significantly increase levels of, butyric and propionic acids (the second best source of beta-glucans is oats).
  • Beta-glucans have been shown to increase levels of Roseburia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister, and in particular the species Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia faecis, and Roseburia intestinalis.
  • In a human trial, foods rich in beta-glucan, increased levels of Roseburia hominis, Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and probiotic Clostridium species), and Ruminococcus species, while lowering the levels of Firmicutes and Fusobacteria were lowered. Levels of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids also increased.
  • In vitro studies have also demonstrated that beta-glucan can boost the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis. In an extensive review of the health effects of beta-glucan, researchers concluded that this fiber’s actions upon the gut microflora, including enhancing the production of short-chain fatty acids, contributes to its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and immune-modulating effects.

FAQs (37:44)

  • Taken all together, these unique properties found in no other food groups elevates mushrooms to their own food group!

Serving size? Servings per week?

  • Let’s look at the science! Servings are defined same way as veggies, 80-100g, one cup raw (a fist-sized amount) or 1/2 cup cooked.
  • Cancer studies show highest magnitude of effect in relation to frequent mushrooms consumption. Many (but not all) CVD and T2D studies show null effect in context of SAD diet.
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.32591 Compared to participants with mushroom consumption <1 time/week, frequent mushroom intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer (1–2 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.92 [0.81, 1.05]; ≥3 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.83 [0.70, 0.98]; p‐trend = 0.023)..
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3972098/ Breast cancer meta-analysis, reduced risk for every gram daily!

Which are best for inflammation or the gut?

  • Anti-inflammatory effects have been established across the board, even regular ol’ white mushroom. Best studied for inflammation are reishi, maitake, turkey tail.
  • For gut microbiome, each mushroom has a slightly different effect (same as veggies), so variety is the most important.
  • Reishi increases Bifidobacteria, lactobacillus, Roseburia, and lachnospiraceae in the gut. In mice, these mushrooms have also been reported to reduce obesity through modulation of the gut microbiota. Along with reversing gut dysbiosis in mice (reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and lowering levels of endotoxin-releasing Proteobacteria), reishi has been shown to alter the intestinal barrier probity and reduce endotoxemia.
  • Chaga increase Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, bringing the gut microbial profile closer to a healthy composition.
  • Turkey tail mushroom supports Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species and elicit host responses that subsequently regulate the gut microbiome.
  • Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) have been shown to increase microbial diversity, increasing the levels of lactic acid producing bacteria (like Lactobacillus)
  • Shiitake mushroom supports a wide range of bacterial populations including Proteobacteria, Acidifcaciens, Helicobacter suncus, Bacteroides, and Alistipes.
  • lion’s mane induces changes in the gut microbiome that increase the bacterial production of nutrients for the host.
  • oyster mushroom stimulates the growth of Bifidobacterium strains

Are Mushrooms bad for people with autoimmune conditions? (55:29)

  • First studies done in cancer. Things that fight cancer might increase immune function that might flare autoimmune.
  • Recent research shows that mushrooms bring balance rather than stimulte it
  • Lots of species have anti-inflammatory effects and reverse dysbiosis. Reishi especially well studies.
  • Looks for symptoms to see if you're effected: brain issues like depression, skin issues, or autoimmune symptoms
  • Mushrooms whole have always been a part of AIP.

Do they need to be cooked or can they be eaten raw? (1:03:11)

  • With vegetables and seaweeds, cooked versus raw feeds different species, because fiber structure changes with heat. Some nutrients are lost and others are formed, so mixing up raw and cooked is best.
  • With mushrooms, we don’t have microbiome data raw versus cooked, but we do have fiber and antioxidant data.
  • https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048541l Cooking increased starch, total dietary fiber (increase in insoluble, decrease in soluble, decrease in chitin), and acid-hydrolysed fat but decreased crude protein and chitin concentrations (loss of water, plus molecular transformation). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15713030
  • https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09637486.2016.1244662?journalCode=iijf20 Boiling, microwaving, grilling, vs deep frying
  • Cooking in general increases alpha and beta glucans.
  • Decreases total polyphenols and most measures of antioxidant activity. (similar in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29717670)

Can they cause gut issues? SIBO? candida? digestive issues - diarrhea, pain? (1:05:48)

Can they be eaten by people who have histamine intolerance? (1:08:16)

 

Thanks for listening! (1:15:43)

 

   

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